[ISN] Researchers find security flaw in SHA-1 algorithm
isn at c4i.org
Thu Feb 17 04:47:54 EST 2005
By Paul Roberts
IDG News Service
Security experts are warning that a security flaw has been found in a
popular and powerful data encryption algorithm, dubbed SHA-1, by a
team of scientists from Shandong University in China. The three
scientists are circulating a paper within the cryptographic research
community that describes successful tests of a technique that could
greatly reduce the speed with which SHA-1 could be compromised.
Although the cracking technique could not be carried out practically,
it does compromise the integrity of the algorithm and could lead to
more advanced attacks that would render SHA-1 useless, affecting many
Internet security products that use it to generate digital signatures,
according to Bruce Schneier, founder and CTO of Counterpane Internet
SHA-1 is a popular encryption algorithm that was developed by the U.S.
National Security Agency (NSA) in 1995 after a weakness was discovered
in a predecessor algorithm, called the Secure Hash Algorithm, or
"SHA." The algorithm is among those most commonly used to generate
"hashes," or unique strings of values that are used to encrypt and
decrypt digital signatures, Schneier said.
SHA-1 is used to create signatures by most of the popular security
protocols on the Internet, including SSL and PGP (Pretty Good
Privacy), he said.
A research team of three scientists: Xiaoyun Wang, Yiqun Lisa Yin, and
Hongbo Yu, is circulating a paper called Collision Search Attacks on
SHA-1 that describes methods for creating so-called "collisions" with
the SHA-1 algorithm 2,000 times more quickly than had been possible
"It's phenomenal research," Schneier said. "There's a lot of really
A "collision" is an occurrence in which two messages have an identical
hash value. It opens the door to forging valid signatures generated
using SHA-1. Cryptographers rely on "non repudiation" in algorithms,
the concept that two identical hash signatures cannot be created by
different signers, said Michael Szydlo, a senior research scientist at
RSA Security's RSA Labs.
The results of the paper mark a significant improvement over previous
methods of cracking SHA-1 but still require a massive number of
attempts to work -- a number expressed by 1 with thirty zeros after
it, he said.
That number of tries could take 1,000 years for a single personal
computer to execute and is not practical for all but a few government
entities, such as the National Security Agency (NSA), or wealthy
private corporations to try, Schneier said.
However, once an algorithm is broken, other scientists can often move
quickly to refine the process and produce even better results, he
"There's an old (U.S. National Security Agency) maxim: Attacks always
get better. They never get worse," Schneier said.
However, the approach used by the Chinese researchers is novel enough
that cryptography experts aren't sure whether it can be refined,
The paper has not yet been published but will probably appear on the
Web page of the International Association for Cryptographic Research,
Although practical attacks that target SHA-1 are still some time off,
cryptographers will have to decide on a replacement for SHA-1 within
the next couple of years, and organizations that rely on secure
protocols that use SHA-1 will have to evaluate whether the algorithm
is adequate to use for secure transactions, experts agree.
"Do you want your online bank account vulnerable to a 1-in-1000 chance
that someone could break it?" Schneier asked.
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